kleenoil.ca - Kleenoil Filtration System

Elemental Analysis Reports

Elemental Analysis, or Spectroscopy, identifies the type and amount of wear particles, contamination, and oil additives within a fluid. Determining metal content can alert you to the type and severity of wear occurring within the unit. Measurements are expressed in parts per million (ppm).

Wear Metals. Identifying the combinations of wear metals within an engine or hydraulic system can identify components within the machine that are wearing. Knowing what metals a unit is made of can greatly influence an analyst’s recommendations and determine the value of elemental analysis.

Contaminant Metals. Knowledge of the environmental conditions under which a unit operates can explain varying levels of contaminant metals. Excessive levels of dust and dirt can be abrasive and accelerate wear.

Multi-Source and Additive Metals. These metals may turn up in test results for a variety of reasons. Molybdenum, antimony, and boron are additives in some oils. Magnesium, calcium, and barium are often used in detergent/dispersant additives. Phosphorus is used as an extreme pressure additive in gear oils. Along with zinc, phosphorus is also used in anti-wear additives.

The chart below can be used as a quick reference to determine possible wear metal sources:

Wear Metals
Metal Engines Transmissions Gears Hydraulics
Iron (Fe) Cylinder Liners, Rings, Gears, Crankshaft, Camshaft, Valve Train, Oil Pump Gear, Wrist Pins Gears, Disks, Housing, Bearings, Brake Bands, Shaft Gears, Bearings, Shaft, Housing Rods, Cylinders, Gears
Chromium (Cr) Rings, Liners, Exhaust Valves, Shaft Plating, Stainless Steel Alloy Roller Bearings Roller Bearings Shaft
Aluminum (Al) Pistons, Thrust Bearings, Turbo Bearings, Main Bearings(Cat) Pumps, Thrust Washers Pumps, Thrust Washers Bearings, Thrust Plates
Nickel (Ni) Valve Plating, Steel Alloy from Crankshaft, Camshaft, Gears from Heavy Bunker Type Diesel Fuels Steel Alloy from Roller Bearings and Shaft Steel Alloy from Roller Bearings and Shaft N/A
Copper (Cu) Lube Coolers, Main and Rod Bearings, Bushings, Turbo Bearings, Lube Additive Bushings, Clutch Plates(Auto/Power shift), Lube Coolers Bushings, Thrust Plates Bushings, Thrust Plates, Lube Coolers
Lead (Pb) Main and Rod Bearings, Bushings, Lead Solder Bushings(Bronze Alloy), Lube Additive Supplement Bushings(Bronze Alloy), Grease Contamination Bushings(Bronze Alloy)
Tin (Sn) Piston Flashing, Bearing Overlay, Bronze Alloy, Babbit Metal along with Copper and Lead Bearing Cage Metal Bearing Cage Metal, Lube Additive N/A
Cadmium (Cd) N/A N/A N/A N/A
Silver (Ag) Wrist Pin Bushings(EMD’s), Silver Solder(from Lube Coolers) Torrington Needle Bearings(Allison Transmission) N/A Silver Solder(from Lube Coolers)
Titanium (Ti) Gas Turbine Bearings/Hub/Blades, Paint(White Lead) N/A N/A N/A
Vanadium (V) From Heavy Bunker Type Diesel Fuels N/A N/A N/A
Contaminant Metals
Metal Engines Transmissions Gears Hydraulics
Silicon (Si) Dirt, Seals and Sealants, Coolant Inhibitor, Lube Additive(15 ppm or less) Dirt, Seals and Sealants, Coolant Inhibitor, Lube Additive(15 ppm or less) Dirt, Seals and Sealants, Coolant Inhibitor, Lube Additive(15 ppm or less) Dirt, Seals and Sealants, Coolant Inhibitor, Lube Additive(15 ppm or less)
Sodium (Na) Lube Additive, Coolant Inhibitor, Salt Water Contamination, Wash Detergents Lube Additive, Coolant Inhibitor, Salt Water Contamination, Wash Detergents Lube Additive, Salt Water Contamination, Airborne Contaminate Lube Additive, Coolant Inhibitor, Salt Water Contamination, Airborne Contaminate
Potassium (K) Coolant Inhibitor, Airborne Contaminate Coolant Inhibitor, Airborne Contaminate Coolant Inhibitor, Airborne Contaminate Coolant Inhibitor, Airborne Contaminate
Multi Source Metals
Metal Engines Transmissions Gears Hydraulics
Molybdenum (Mo) Ring Plating, Lube Additive, Coolant Inhibitor Lube Additive, Coolant Inhibitor Lube Additive, Coolant Inhibitor, Grease Additive Lube Additive, Coolant Inhibitor
Antimony (Sb) Lube Additive Lube Additive Lube Additive Lube Additive
Manganese (Mn) Steel Alloy Steel Alloy Steel Alloy Steel Alloy
Lithium (Li) N/A Lithium Complex Grease Lithium Complex Grease Lithium Complex Grease
Boron (B) Lube Additive, Coolant Inhibitor Lube Additive, Coolant Inhibitor Lube Additive, Coolant Inhibitor Lube Additive, Coolant Inhibitor
Additive Metals
Metal Engines Transmissions Gears Hydraulics
Magnesium (Mg) Detergent Dispersant Additive, Airborne Contaminant at some sites Detergent Dispersant Additive, Airborne Contaminant at some sites Detergent Dispersant Additive, Airborne Contaminant at some sites Detergent Dispersant Additive, Airborne Contaminant at some sites
Calcium (Ca) Detergent Dispersant Additive, Airborne Contaminant at some sites, Contaminant from Water Detergent Dispersant Additive, Airborne Contaminant at some sites, Contaminant from Water Detergent Dispersant Additive, Airborne Contaminant at some sites, Contaminant from Water Detergent Dispersant Additive, Airborne Contaminant at some sites, Contaminant from Water
Barium (Ba) Usually an Additive from Synthetic Lubricants Usually an Additive from Synthetic Lubricants Usually an Additive from Synthetic Lubricants Usually an Additive from Synthetic Lubricants
Phosphorus (P) Anti-Wear Additive(ZDP) Anti-Wear Additive(ZDP) Anti-Wear Additive(ZDP), EP Additive(Extreme Pressure) Anti-Wear Additive(ZDP)
Zinc (Zn) Anti-Wear Additive(ZDP) Anti-Wear Additive(ZDP) Anti-Wear Additive(ZDP) Anti-Wear Additive(ZDP)